York’s future depends on its quality of life—that was the message of both the
1993 political contests and a survey of current and former New Yorkers
commissioned by the Commonwealth Fund. In the Autumn 1993 City Journal,
Julia Vitullo-Martin outlined the findings of that survey: while the city’s
economy continues to draw the young and ambitious, quality-of-life problems
like crime, disorder, and incivility are driving many New Yorkers to leave.
At a recent symposium jointly sponsored by the Manhattan Institute and
Citizens Union, Vitullo-Martin was joined by a panel of distinguished
scholars and New York City Council members. They discussed the importance of
the quality of life, the historical and political roots of the city’s current
problems, and the practical steps political leaders can take to improve
The meeting was chaired by Robert F. Wagner Jr., in one of his last
public appearances before his death of heart failure at age 49 on November
15, 1993. Wagner, one of New York City’s most devoted public servants, had
served with distinction in an impressive range of positions both in and out
of city government: first deputy mayor, Board of Education president,
chairman of the City Planning Commission, and, most recently, chairman of Citizens
Union. At his death, Wagner was at work with Vitullo-Martin on a book, The
Future of Cities, and an article for the City journal about innovative
public housing leaders.
Wagner cared deeply about the future of New York City; his untimely
passing is a loss to all New Yorkers.
ROBERT F. WAGNER JR.
The quality of life is not a new issue in New York, though it has probably
gotten more attention this year than in the past. Jacob Riis raised the issue
in 1896 in his book How the Other Half Lives. And E. B. White, in his
1949 classic Here Is New York, said about New Yorkers: “They sit in
stalled subways without claustrophobia, they extricate themselves from panic
situations by some lucky wisecrack, they greet confusion and congestion with
patience and grit—a sort of perpetual muddling through. Every facility is
inadequate—the hospitals and schools and playgrounds are overcrowded, the
express highways are feverish, the unimproved highways and bridges are
bottlenecks, there is not enough air and not enough light, and there is
usually either too much heat or too little.”
I would like to pose the question why the issue of quality of life is
different today than it has been in the past.
We used to be able to take some comfort in the argument of urban
historians that cities are better off today than they were in, say, the
mid-nineteenth century, when the objective conditions of poverty and distress
were far worse than anything we’ve got today. Historians like Dick Wade had
shown this pretty conclusively. Presumably, we believed, if we’d progressed
this far since the last century, we could progress further.
For New York City, looking back on the kind of statement that E.B. White
made was of particular comfort. After all, if New York was filthy, dangerous,
and disordered in the “good old days,” when it was unquestionably a great
city, then surely filth and dangerousness aren’t impediments to greatness.
Maybe everything was OK.
Bob Wagner asks why these issues are important today when they didn’t seem
to be that important five years ago. When the Commonwealth Fund decided to do
its survey, I remember people saying things like: “Shouldn’t the foundation
be concerned with fundamental issues, like poverty and homelessness, rather
than these frivolous matters like dirt, noise, disorder, and litter?”
But quality-of-life issues are fundamental. The much-heralded
information revolution is here. That means we now have—in this city and in
the world—a rather footloose economy in which jobs and people can move pretty
much where they please. People have choices they never had before. I’m
inclined to think that over the next few decades, American public policy will
be shaped by a new politics of choice in every area. Choice will have
particularly profound effects on cities. New York—and Chicago and Los Angeles
and every U.S. city—will have to be competitive as they’ve never been before.
New York has lived off its luxurious intellectual and economic capital for
some time now. But it can no longer afford to live off the greatness of its
past. We’re at one of those crossroads, where city hall is going to have to
make some very serious decisions about the city’s direction.
I would like to make three basic points. First, quality-of-life issues
matter. The Commonwealth surveys—and the many copycat surveys—showed this.
People come to New York for jobs and the economy, but they often leave in
disgust over quality-of-life issues.
Second, these issues reflect the competence of city government. If the
government cannot do relatively simple things—keeping the streets clean,
fixing the sidewalks, filling the potholes—then how can it do anything truly
Take the question of noise in New York. Various mayoral administrations
have tried to do something about this issue. When my husband and I moved to
New York, the Lindsay administration was working on it, and the problem still
persists. One of the Greenwich Village newspapers recently ran an article
about “boom-box cars”—cars with radios that are so amplified that you can
hear them from blocks away. These boom-box cars are illegal. But it turns out
the police cannot issue any summonses to the offenders, no matter how noisy
their cars, unless they measure the decibel level with a noise meter. The
police, however, are not authorized to use the noise meters—only the
Department of Environmental Protection inspectors are—and the environmental
inspectors cannot issue the summonses. It’s a wonderful example of the
problems in New York: we have this fairly simple problem of illegal boom-box
cars, but we have so entangled ourselves in ridiculous regulations that it’s
almost impossible to do anything about it.
Third, the combination of quality-of-life problems and the government’s
inability to deal with them inevitably leads citizens to ask, “What am I
getting for my taxes?” New York City residents are very heavily taxed. I
think that for many New Yorkers, high taxes didn’t really matter all that
much—until they started wondering, “What are we getting for them?” and coming
up with the answer: not very much. People then ask, “Why am I here?” and, “Do
I have to be here?” Multiply that by a large number of people, and New York
has a problem.
There’s a pervasive sense of decline in New York City today, which I think
is relatively new. Just in the past year, even very faithful New Yorkers,
very liberal West Siders, have been feeling a sense of decline. It reminds me
of the days of the fiscal crisis, but without the drama. The sense of decline
seems to be incremental and relentless.
Casey Stengel used to say, “Once you start losing, everyone commences to
play stupid.” This applies to city government: once you start hitting these
terrible declines, nothing goes well, services get worse, expenditures rise,
and everyone plays stupid. It is imperative for the new mayoral
administration to make these issues a very high priority. If it fails to do
so, New York will keep heading downward.
Historian, Cooper Union
The quality of life is not just a New York problem. In Philadelphia, a
popular columnist calls himself “the marquis of debris”: during the late
1980s, one of his favorite columns was about trash storms in Center City
Philadelphia. Mayor Edward Rendell made his mark early on by literally
scrubbing City Hall—cleaning rooms that had never been cleaned.
In San Francisco, the last mayoral election was decided on quality-of-life
issues. An unknown challenger, Frank Jordan, defeated incumbent Art Agnos by
campaigning almost entirely on issues like homelessness, graffiti, and
particularly aggressive panhandling. In 1992, tolerant San Francisco approved
Proposition J, prohibiting “harassing or hounding acts in connection with
soliciting money or any other valuable thing.” The proposition argued that “aggressive
solicitation undermines the public’s basic right to enjoy public places
without fear and jeopardizes the city’s economy”—just the point Julia
In Los Angeles, MCA has built Citywalk, a 100-million-square-foot,
two-block-long shopping and entertainment center in the ethnically mixed but
middle-class San Fernando Valley. (The San Fernando Valley, by the way, talks
about seceding from Los Angeles.) Citywalk was built as an exact replica of
Venice Beach and Sunset Boulevard—but indoors and minus graffiti and
In the recent L.A. mayor’s race, candidate Michael Woo set off a firestorm
when he said: “My goal has never been to turn Hollywood Boulevard into an
antiseptic, artificially sanitized area.” (This was not actually a danger.) “Hollywood
Boulevard,” Woo continued, “will be an exciting, diverse and exotic place.
Homeowners will see kids with ghetto blasters. I don’t want to drive away the
eccentric and interesting people who are no harm to anyone else; I want to
encourage real street life.” That last phrase—”I want to encourage real
street life”—came back to haunt him. Woo lost by eight points in an election
where he had the demographic edge.
By and large people would rather not have to choose between the antiseptic
and the antisocial. The shame of our contemporary cities is that we so often
seem forced to make such a choice. Bob Wagner asks: Why has it come to this?
I think it relates to a failed experiment in effectively decriminalizing what
were called victimless crimes: public drunkenness, panhandling, loitering,
public prostitution, and the like.
The idea of a victimless crime has a venerable history. Jeremy Bentham
described “drunkenness and fornication” as “imaginary offenses, acts which
produce no real evil, but which prejudice, mistake, or the aesthetic
principle has caused to be regarded as offenses.” His far more influential
heir, John Stuart Mill, said such “self-regarding behavior” should stand
outside both public scrutiny and the law.
In the United States of the 1960s—the Aquarian Age of sociology—these
older arguments were revived and given new clothing. An NYU sociologist, for
example, stated that “past support for laws regarding public conduct involved
unsubstantiated assertions of the horrible consequences likely to follow from
decriminalization.” He continued: “As empirical data and realistic analysis
replace misinformation and stereotyped thinking, neither the long-standing
existence of criminal statutes nor a majority adherence to the norms and
values it seeks to uphold is likely to be accepted as sufficient
justification for maintaining standards of public conduct.”
Sociologists turned the tables on the proponents of public order by
arguing that the cure was worse than the disease. The problem, they
contended, was not public prostitution or panhandling, but the policing of
such behavior—the constricted morality of “squares” attempting to impose
their values on others.
The bullets forged by sociologists were fired by police chiefs and legal
reformers. Policing vice, they argued, was inherently corrupting, and
maintaining civility by arresting drunks and crazies was derided as social
work as opposed to “real police work.” And the most important claim, made again
and again by both police chiefs and professors, was that decriminalizing vice
and minor offenses against civility would free the police to deal with major
One Great Society report captured this consensus: “Only when the load of
law enforcement has been lightened by stripping away those responsibilities
for which it is not suited will we begin to make criminal law a more
effective instrument of social protection.” As I speak today, the debate is
on over whether the National Guard should be called out to fight crime in
Washington, D.C. What went wrong?
First off, the reformers, straining to be “hip,” often trivialized the
collateral consequences of the behavior they wanted to decriminalize. “That
prostitution tends to encourage derivative kinds of criminal activities,”
argued a West Coast sociologist, “can no more be denied than it can be denied
that kissing may lead to illegitimate births.”
New York was in the vanguard of decriminalization—it’s been carried
furthest here. In New York, not even running a red light was considered
criminal. Traffic tickets were defined downward, to use Senator Moynihan’s
term, in an effort to unclog the courts. We saw the consequences of that a
few months ago when there was a rash of serious accidents caused by unlicensed
Let me close with the comments of a prominent sociologist who acknowledged
the risks of decriminalization, comments that capture the spirit in which
this experiment was carried out. “Under certain conditions, certain
societies, like certain people, are better off dead—at least if we maintain
that there are values whose preservation is more important than that of the
survival of people or societies.” He went on: “American society has much that
is worth protecting, but that protection may only be had on the strict
circumstances which involve permitting the free sway of Epicurean behavior
unless or until such a time as such behavior clearly threatens the existence
of others or of the society.” This sociologist concludes, “It’s possible that
the point of no return, however, may have long passed before its existence is
noticed.” But we have noticed, and we haven’t passed the point of no return,
though we’ve been heading in that direction.
Criminologist, Northeastern University
As Fred Siegel mentioned, there has recently been talk of calling out the
National Guard to fight crime in Washington, D.C. I would like to begin by
talking about how President Clinton might go about deciding whether or not to
send in the Guard.
What if the president sneaked out late at night and met with residents of
the neighborhoods in which so many killings are taking place, with no TV
cameras, reporters, other politicians, or community leaders present—just
residents? What he’d learn—and this would be true in any big city—is that in
the minds of citizens, the crime problem is, first and foremost, things like
disorder, prostitution, panhandling, graffiti, and drunken youths taking over
parks. However tough the neighborhood is, these are the problems that people notice.
If the president asked the next question—What can the military do about
this?—he would quickly realize that this isn’t the best idea in the world.
Most of the hotly debated crime issues, like the question of sending in
the military, have little to do with the real crime problem. Take capital
punishment. Nobody believes that capital punishment is going to make any
difference. It has no relevance for the issues that city residents care about
most. What about gun control? I’m sorry, but it’s out of the barn. There are
so many guns out there that we could pass serious gun laws right now and for
fifty years we still wouldn’t be able to deal with the guns already on the
In contrast, some of the most serious crime issues have received very
little publicity. A series of court decisions have gutted the ability of
police to maintain public order. Recently, whether most of you know it or
not, New York lost its antipanhandling ordinance. In the Loper case,
it was decided that panhandling is a form of speech that has political
content. As a result, New York City’s antipanhandling ordinance was declared
unconstitutional. That decision will probably have much more impact on your
lives than any federal crime bill.
The Loper decision and other, similar decisions embody a set of
assumptions about urban problems that are consistent with what Fred Siegel
just described. If one reads the Loper decision, the first thing that
stands out is that legal and political advocates have succeeded in framing
the issue of disorder as one of “homelessness,” neediness, and economic
A few years ago, I did some consulting for the Transit Authority on the
problem of disorder in the subway. At that time, all the advocates agreed
that the problem was “homelessness” and that the “homeless” were going to be
victims of police actions aimed at them. As a matter of fact, that was not
the goal of the programs at any time. We were not concerned about people’s
economic status. We were concerned about the behavior of people in the subway
that threatened and intimidated other riders. Framing the issue as the
well-to-do versus the needy and “homeless” was a political ploy. This is not
the well-to-do riding the subway versus the poor panhandling; subway
passengers are working-class people who have to use public transportation.
The second thing one notices about Loper and similar decisions is
that the courts have trivialized the consequences of street disorder. James
Q. Wilson and 1 developed what is called the “broken windows” argument: Disorder
makes citizens fearful to go out into the streets, which are thereby ceded to
criminals. Wesley Skogan’s research empirically demonstrated the link between
fear, disorder, and serious crime. But the courts have considered only a
crude caricature of this argument. They ask, in effect: You mean to tell me
that one beggar standing on the street is going to become a serious criminal?
Of course nobody’s saying that. The argument is much more subtle.
The third striking feature of these court decisions is outright hostility
toward the police. Tampa, Florida, had laws barring loitering for the purpose
of prostitution and of drug dealing. The latter, in particular, helped Tampa
manage the drug problem as well as any city in the United States. But the
courts threw out both laws. When they threw out the prostitution law, they
argued that police wouldn’t be able to tell the difference between
prostitutes hailing johns on the street and housewives hailing their husbands
and that they would use the law to harass minority women.
Haven’t these judges been on the streets? Don’t they understand what
police do? Today in New York City there are probably going to be ten thousand
encounters between police and citizens, often under very confusing and
ambiguous circumstances. Yet at least 99.9 percent of those will go just
I do not want to dismiss the problem of police abuse. But it is terribly
misguided to assume that police are abusive as a rule and, on that basis, to
deny them the authority they need to provide effective police services—which
are especially needed in poor neighborhoods. Self-described advocates for the
rights of the poor have been virtually silent about the right to live in safe
communities. As a result, citizens, except for the most sturdy, are left with
little alternative but to retreat from public spaces.
City Councilman (D-Manhattan)
It’s very refreshing to hear people talking about issues that for too long
have been taboo. It’s good to see many people coming out of the closet and
saying out loud what everyone has been thinking in silence and in anger. The
underlying issue we’re discussing is lowered expectations about what sort of
behavior is tolerable. We bump over bodies on the street. We see drug dealers
on the corners and around our schools. We see vagrants in our hallways and on
our streets. And I agree with George Kelling—”homelessness” should not
dominate the debate over what goes on in our streets. Not everybody who’s on
the streets is homeless. And if they are, it’s not necessarily because
they’ve lost their apartment or because a sleazy landlord has raised the rent
or kicked them out. The truth is that you have multi-symptomatic people on
the streets. Some are there because they choose to be there, because we allow
them an open market to sell stolen goods. Others are there because we’ve
deinstitutionalized them without providing them care or protecting the
community from those who are dangerous.
When we talk about what we as New Yorkers should tolerate, we must look
into ourselves and rid ourselves of some liberal guilt. I’m not saying that
liberals are bad—I consider myself to be one of them—but we must recognize
that failed social policies have caused the quality of life to deteriorate
for the majority of the people in this city.
We need to get back down to basics and listen to people. People are saying
that they’re moving out of New York City because they can no longer tolerate
the little things—which are not so little any longer. They can’t tolerate the
stench of urine in front of their buildings and in the subway stations; they
can’t tolerate tripping over bodies or being accosted—not just verbally any
longer, but physically—for a buck. Something is wrong and we need to solve
City Councilman (D-Queens)
It is possible to improve things in the city. On Hillside Avenue and 175th
Street in Queens, there’s a little park about two blocks long, which is the
gateway to southeastern Queens. Historically it was a beautiful park, but the
neighborhood changed and it started to become a nesting ground for derelicts
and winos. The police of the 103rd Precinct ignored the problem, until,
together with the civic association, I put the precinct captain on the spot.
I said: “This is against the law—public drinking, sleeping in the park—and if
you don’t get them out of there, you’re going to get out of here.” I
told the Parks Department: “Cut the grass; clean up the dirt and the litter.”
We’ve got some bureaucrats and civil servants so insulated by rules and
regulations and union contracts that they just don’t understand what their first
obligation is. We’ve got to get a level of outrage and respond to these
For years, a lot on 175th Street and 111th Avenue had been the site of a
car stripping operation. The police did nothing about it until I said to the
commander of the 103rd Precinct: “How, year in and year out, can this site on
a residential block be used for stripping stolen cars?” The police wound up
arresting a young man who lived across the street. He was stealing cars,
parking them near his house, stripping them, and leaving the remains. The
police will do a job when we make them do a job. It doesn’t matter what the
structure is; the heat must be put on them.
That said, I’m optimistic about the future of this city. I still believe
that it contains a critical mass of intelligence and other ingredients that
sustain its vitality and viability.
City Councilwoman (D-Bronx)
The National League of Cities recently asked me to participate in a
seminar titled “Los Angeles as a Third World City: What Shall We Do?” Thirty
people were there, all either mayors or council members from large and small
cities. Two themes emerged—one was quality of life and the other, which I
would like to emphasize, was education.
I have been saying, for about five years now, that very soon we will be
serving breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our schools. Not that I want to, but
it’s a fact of life. We have to do something about the buildings where kids
will be from 7:00 in the morning until 7:00 at night.
The schools will have to provide social services to newly arrived and
disadvantaged kids. I don’t really want to do that—that’s not education—but
we have to do it. We also will have to provide an enriching education for
middle-class kids. And we will have to provide something for the intellectually
The people at 110 Livingston Street may have the desire to do something,
but the system is just not working, and if we don’t do something about that,
the city is in trouble. I’m not an expert on education, but we must do
something—and I am willing to try almost any experiment today.
Not too many years ago, poor and immigrant children, if they had the will
to learn, could expect to get a good education in the city’s public schools.
It’s tough now to say to people: You can get a good education if you really
want it. There’s a question as to whether you can get it.
Maybe there is not a monolithic solution—maybe we have to attack the
problem with different solutions. But there is no question that if America’s
cities are to have a bright future, we have to do something about public
Contributing Editor, City Journal
This has been a remarkable meeting. The speakers have covered both the
small and the large elements that constitute the quality of life in a city.
And we are an audience of people of all kinds—black, white, Latino, Asian—all
deeply concerned with the quality of life. This is not a white issue, and
it’s not a class issue.
When I retired from the New York Times, I moved to Stroudsburg,
Pennsylvania. Every afternoon at 5:45 I get on the bus home from New York,
and the population of the bus is about 20 or 25 percent black and Latino.
These are people who work in New York City. They go through the ordeal of
taking a bus at 5:00 in the morning, and then another one at 5:45 in the
afternoon—three hours a day of commuting.
We live in interracial communities. But nobody tried to achieve
integration—it naturally happened because people of similar tastes and
similar income managed to find places where they could live comfortably in
beautiful surroundings. I asked them privately why they left New York when
they still work there. I’ve gotten many answers, and one of what I call the
big reasons I remember most vividly. It was given by a man who is doing a
highly technical job for a very large corporation. This gentlemen not only
commutes to New York, but when the bus gets to the city, he turns around and
takes the PATH to Newark where he actually does his work.
This man said to me: “My two grandfathers were both sharecroppers. I was
educated at Queensboro Community College and then at NYU; I’m a computer
specialist and a very good one.” He went on: “What I didn’t find in New York
for me and my family was a place to live that made me feel that I was living
in the style that someone who had achieved what I think I have achieved is
I spoke with an Italian couple, both of whom work in New York City. They
had lived in Richmond Hill, Queens, in a two-family house. The problem was
that they had no place to park. They left New York City simply because our
planning didn’t provide adequate space for them to leave their car on the
street. This is one of the little reasons why people are dissatisfied.
Another of the big reasons—and I’m delighted that June Eisland touched on
it with great strength—is education. One part of the quality of life is the
expectation that your children will do better than you.
And another important reason is the fear of crime. We have crime in the
country too, usually involving people who know each other. But one isn’t
afraid of crime on the streets, because each of the subdivisions in which
these ex-New Yorkers live is watched by its own hired patrol.
Archie Spigner talks about what he does for his community. He’s a
legislator, but he’s acting as an administrator or an executive. His stories
tell us that there’s something wrong with the government of New York City—it
doesn’t have an executive function at the neighborhood level, so legislators
have to try to deal with these issues. And everything they do has to go
through the central government.
New York’s health is vital, not only to those of us who live here, but
also to those who work here. If the city doesn’t regain its economic power,
the interracial communities in Pennsylvania will fail. There’s no way those
people could live on the salaries they would earn up there.
The quality of urban life is also crucial to the country as a whole. We
must solve these problems, both small and large. The government has to be
changed so it can carry out its most vital responsibilities. And personal
attitudes must be adjusted so people will take responsibility for such simple
things as asking: Don’t you want to pick up that piece of paper you’ve just
dropped on the sidewalk? As our speakers have eloquently pointed out, there
is much that can be done about the issues, both big and small, that make up
what we call the quality of life.