CITY JOURNAL articles often secretly aspire to transcend journalism and achieve the condition of literature, and none have so triumphantly succeeded in doing so as this issues extraordinary lead story, contributing editor Theodore Dalrymples "A Taste for Danger." Here "literature" doesnt mean "fiction," à la Steven Glass or Patricia Smith; it means literature as George Orwell practiced it in such classic essays as "Shooting an Elephant" or "Such, Such Were the Joys"fiercely honest pieces of concrete reporting that go beyond the particulars at hand to illuminate universal truths. It is a large claim, to be sure: but Dalrymples essay may well rest on the shelf next to Orwell 100 years from nowif mankind still reads.
Dalrymple likes to travel to what Joseph Conrad called "the dark places of the earth"the darker the better. He likes to visit war, revolution, social collapse, partly for what such anarchy teaches him about human nature, stripped of its customary drapery of civilized life. And what he learns is how much that drapery of civilization humanizes people, transforming homo sapiens from weasels fighting in a hole into creatures capable of achieving decency, dignity, self-respect, and compassion.
Into something more, in other words, than a brute or a mechanism. But armies of thinkers seem to view man as merely that. For instance, whenever someone parrots the inhuman cliché, fathered by Le Corbusier, that "a house is a machine for living," one cant help replying: Yes, but only if a person is a machine forwhat? Presumably for performing all those mechanical functions that in Corbusiers arid, bureaucratic utopia make up the sum of human life. It was this dehumanizing spirit that Edmund Burke saw at the center of the French Revolution. It came easy to the revolutionaries to kill the king and queen because of this spirit, Burke argues: they lacked reverence not only for royalty and womanhood but for humanity. "On (their) scheme of things," he says, "a king is but a man, a queen is but a woman; a woman is but an animal, and an animal not of the highest order." Any idea that would make them more is fiction and superstition.
But all the ideals that make us human are fictions and superstitionsmanmade constructs such as honor and duty, decency and forbearance, and above all the idea of our own humanitywhich become real if we believe in them and live our lives by them. Thats the truth Dalrymple comes to: theres nothing more moving, more worthy of respect in his eyes, than the millennia of effort, continuing in our own lives, that have made us men, not brutes.
That transformation is the work of culture; and in their different ways, many stories in this issue bear on how culture does its work well or ill. David Watkins article on the Houses of Parliament, "An Eloquent Sermon in Stone" (page 94), shows how good architecture, operating on principles diametrically opposed to Le Corbusiers, expresses ideals and holds them up as a standard for life. In our own day, if education is one of the main channels by which culture transmits ideals, the goingson at one of New Yorks public high schools that Heather Mac Donald describes in "An F for Hip-Hop 101" (page 56) should cause disquiet about how debased a version of culture New Yorks students are receiving. Though its subject is much more upscale, Hilton Kramers "Reflections on the Changing Times" (page 43) examines a related cultural debasement: it shows how the nations newspaper of record absorbed the 1960s cultural revolution and now retails a prosperous, indulgent decadence whose highest concerns are "lifestyle" issues, from planning a menu to choosing a sexual "orientation."
But those who deplore such cultural developments are not powerless. If you are worried that TVs steady diet of trashy nihilism and vulgarity will coarsen your kids imagination, the solution, as Harry Stein explains in "Pulling the Plug" on page 88, is simple. And as Tucker Carlson reports in "The Politics of Virtue" on page 66, the next presidential race may very well center on how to restore the nations traditional ideals after the cultural ravages that the 1960s left behind.
For though those traditional ideals may be manmade fictions, centuries of human experience, as Dalrymple learned on his dark journeys, have shown that they lead to the best of which man is capable.